The landmark event produced by network supervision is the 1998 "Yellow Ribbon Movement", which has experienced 18 of years, the network public opinion supervision has gradually become the key factor of the socialist political culture system with Chinese characteristics, and its level of development embodies the progress of democratic legal system to some extent. It is also an important way for the people to realize their own wishes, and the social public, as the subject of supervision, exercised their own supervisory right through network supervision, which can play a decisive role in crisis emergency. Network supervision is still in its infancy in China, which needs constant regulation and development. At the same time, European and American developed countries through network supervision to carry out anti-corruption work experience to research and summary, so as to more effectively exert network supervision positive energy.
Nowadays, the world has used laws to regulate the supervision of internet public opinion, "in the 142 constitutions of the world, there are 124 clear rules for the supervision of public opinion." "In our country, the citizens ' right to criticize the proposal is endowed by the Constitution, the network supervision is based on it, but lacks the definition and description of the standardization and operability of the network supervision." Because the corruption object of network supervision is mainly in power, there is no law and regulations escort, so it does not play a substantial role, so we should define the limits of the law and Regulations on the network supervision establishment. Combined with the reality of our country, one is to perfect the Constitution, to write the network supervision into the Constitution, to identify and protect network supervision; second, the promulgation of the "Internet Law" and "network supervision Law", with legal norms to regulate network supervision, the rule of law to regulate network freedom, self-discipline and so on, while the supervision of corruption laws, so that the freedom of network supervision has been ensured, The abuse of network supervision has also been curbed.
Although China currently has the Tort Liability Act, "Internet Information Service Management measures" and many other laws and regulations on network security and network infringement in the fight against problems such as the provision and explanation, but did not establish a special "network anti-corruption Law", "the network of anti-corruption procedures, the protection of the rights of netizens and relief system, The lack of law in the supervision system of Internet public opinion leads to the inability of related problems, and the inconsistency between administrative and local laws and regulations leads to the frequent situation of law difficulty. "All of the above make the authority of the law has been threatened and challenged, resulting in the government in the minds of the masses of the image of a large discount, the people distrust of the government, the government's work has not been recognized and supported by the masses, so the legal system of network anti-corruption is a long and arduous task,
Most of the countries in transition in the civil law system have the possibility of non-compliance. It is well known that under the condition of lax law enforcement, network supervision is difficult to achieve good results. Therefore, in order to let network supervision back to the state of law, under the protection of laws and regulations, the strength and effectiveness of law enforcement.
Strengthen the guidance of network supervision, progressive implementation of the real-name network. Because many individuals are not very clear about how to use network technology rationally, we should strengthen the guidance of network security education by using all kinds of media propaganda and creating the correct ideological environment. The characteristics of Internet information, so that each person's ability to process information is different, some netizens in the face of complex and diverse information will lose judgment, and even lost direction, overwhelmed. For the quality of personnel, should be based on different levels of age, technology, awareness, concept of education and publicity.
It is urgent to guide the development trend of public opinion. At the same time, the network media and traditional media to establish cooperation between the mechanism, with its long to make up its own short, to achieve a double win. As a representative website of the mainstream authoritative media, it is the responsibility and mission entrusted by the Society. The Government should actively participate in the construction of these websites, give help and support to the talents, funds and policies, enlarge the influence and reputation of the mainstream website, refine the function of the mainstream website, and classify them, and then be able to standardize and guide the development direction of public opinion more actively.
Strengthen the network users of the system training efforts. In the era of rapid development of the Internet, the main body of the network users have diversified, in addition to the network industry related workers use the network, almost all people will use the network, different from the traditional media, the Internet media communication is two-way, the traditional information recipients can also be the sender of information, The channels and avenues of information dissemination are well known, and everyone can easily control it, not only the private and public areas of information dissemination is confusing, but also the specific content of information dissemination of timely and accurate monitoring is very difficult. Therefore, the related network industry Worker's business quality enhancement is imminent, the Netizen oneself comprehensive quality enhancement is extremely crucial. From netizens to network operators, from Baidu, Google engine search Tencent QQ, micro-letter, BBS, post, Micro Bo, in the face of such a complex and changeable information system, the legal system to restrict and control network supervision is far from enough, the network industry workers must first realize their responsibility, mission and play, And the industry itself can through the cultivation of noble professional ethics to the personal behavior of the constraints and norms, so to strengthen the network media, netizens and network industry self-discipline between the profound significance.
At present, through the network corruption of the vulgar, disorderly analysis can be seen, China's netizen literacy still has a lot of room for improvement, anti-corruption is the cause of lifelong struggle of the nation, need everyone's collective efforts, solidarity and joint participation. Therefore, the cultural level of the whole society needs to be improved, and the cultivation of civil society is the trend.
First of all, strengthen the related network of legal publicity, guide and support netizens through the network to participate in the participation, and then can make the netizen from the heart aware of the significance and advantages of network reporting work, effectively guide the public to participate in the network participation in the law. In the nine-year compulsory education and the ideological and political theory course of colleges and universities, the relevant content of the network participation is set up, and the young generation is actively engaged in the network politics, and the good habits of orderly and non perceptual expression are cultivated to create a healthy and high quality network ecological environment. Secondly, we should improve the network information level of the whole society. In particular, rural areas must fully cover the nine-year compulsory education system, all localities should strictly implement the nine-year compulsory education system, pay attention to the development of vocational and technical education and let more high-quality basic education resources to the poor and backward areas, and strengthen the poor and backward areas of the network popularization rate and coverage, so as to achieve China's network information level toward a higher , faster goals and levels of development. Finally, we should support and guide social organizations such as NGOs, encourage and develop the civil network anti-corruption organizations spontaneously established by the people according to law, and establish good cooperation mechanism with the official, so as to realize the close integration and complementarity between official and civil network anti-corruption.
How to exert the positive energy of network supervision more effectively, we think, we should start from the grassroots community. Network surveillance needs to be directed at people who really need it, for those who actually use it rather than for policy-making minorities. The basic point of Group education should be different. Therefore, targeted education and publicity should be directed to different groups of people, which is more effective than Grand propaganda.
范文2：The development mode of internet finance
With the rapid development of information technology, large data, cloud computing and other technologies widely used, the traditional financial industry and the depth of the Internet integration, the emergence of the internet finance this emerging industries. In recent years, internet finance through the Internet, mobile Internet and other tools, so that the traditional financial business has become more convenient, transparent, convenient, and the derivation of many new financial models.
Internet finance refers to the new type of financial business mode in which traditional financial institutions and Internet enterprises use Internet technology and information communication technology to realize financial intermediation, payment, investment and information intermediary services. The integration of the two is not simply added, but the combination of the Internet Information Technology and the Internet platform and the depth of the financial industry, and the traditional financial industry from the content to the form of all-round, a deep layer of overlapping.
The development of internet finance in China is slower than that of developed economies in Europe and America, so far, it is divided into four stages: the first phase: the 1990 's-2005: The main combination of Internet and finance in this period is that the Internet provides strong technical support for the financial industry, that is, to move the traditional banking business to the Internet, including the net banking, ATM and other business implementation. The second stage: 2005-2013: After several years of development, internet finance in China began to form a preliminary scale, the specific performance of the network lending began to sprout, the third-party payment agencies gradually grew up, the combination of Internet and finance began from the technical field into the Financial business field. This phase of the landmark event is the 2011-year People's bank began to issue third-party payment licences, third-party payment agencies have entered the track of normative development. Phase III: 2013. 2013 is also known as the Internet's financial year. 2013 was singled out as a stage in the development of internet finance, because of the historic events of many internet finance during the year, such as Peer-to-peer network lending, which was a major development during the year, Money Fund product balance of the launch of the "Angel sinks" as the representative of the financing platform to start operation, by the Alibaba Ma Yun, China Ping ' an MA, Tencent's Ma Teng together founded the "Public Security Online" network insurance company was approved, and the bank, Brokers have also relied on the Internet to restructure and promote their products, while the development of internet finance has been the concern of the Government. Phase IV: 2013-so far. With the development of mobile Internet, mobile phones gradually become the Internet financial operation Terminal, most of the financial business can be realized on the mobile phone, such as the major banks of the app can realize real-time transfer, remittance, no card no discount and so on.
After the development of the above stage, internet finance has formed its own mode in China, according to its business model, it is divided into: payment platform type, financing platform type, financial platform type and service platform type.
Network payment refers to the behavior of transferring money funds between the payer and the public network or private network. including Internet payment, mobile phone payment, fixed telephone payment, digital television payment, and so on, the first two methods of our daily life payment methods, especially mobile phone payment business, more and more become our life is an indispensable way of payment.
The typical representative of the payment platform-type Internet finance is the Alipay paid by the third party. Alipay still occupies a third party to pay the main share in the 2016q1 third-party mobile payment trading scale market share, Alipay accounted for 51.8%, Tenpay accounted for 38.3%, Lakara accounted for 1.4%, the linkage advantage accounted for 1.3%. Now Alipay users have reached 300 million people, Alipay is now dabbling in a wider range, including traditional network payments, credit card repayment, cell phone recharge, water and electricity gas billing business, but also expand the business to the medical insurance industry, illegal payment, such as mobile payment, Alipay will provide us with the wisdom of life, let us spend less time to wait, spend more time to live.
Third-party payment is now in the first stage of rapid payment, and gradually towards the use of credit guarantee to seek a greater interest in the second phase of the direction of development, and gradually realize the use of large data marketing methods, so that their development and growth, and eventually developed into a new comprehensive financial model.
Financing platform-type Internet finance is a financing platform based on the Internet, making full use of the Internet to meet the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises and individuals. Financing platform-type Internet finance model has three types: public-raising, peer-to-peer and microfinance. Public finance refers to small businesses or individuals using the Internet and SNS to show their ideas to the public, soliciting financial assistance a financing model. Refers to the form of purchase + pre-order, to the Netizen to raise project funds model.
Peer-to-peer is a business model that gathers a very small amount of money to lend to people with a financial need. Peer-to-peer is also made up of three elements, borrowers, reputable, borrowing on peer-to-peer sites, lenders, extra cash, attracted by high interest rates, and agreements reached through Peer-to-peer credit services platforms. Peer-to-peer network lending was first produced in the UK in 2005, as it was more flexible and efficient than banks, with high returns on investment and soon replicated globally and introduced into China in 2007. China's first Peer-to-peer platform is a pat loan. It now averages more than 6%, with the highest borrowing even reaching 20% of the proceeds. With its high yield and good flexibility, the Peer-to-peer platform has grown rapidly-becoming the third largest lending platform for bank lending and private borrowing.
Micro-network lending. Ali is the pioneer of this model. Alibaba uses some of its big data resources to conduct credit ratings for businesses and individuals, and to establish a database of SMEs and individuals to lend to them. Ali's success in small loans, and meet the needs of SMEs and individuals in a period of time to the funds, but also make their own funds to maximize the benefits. Now many large electric power companies have followed the model of Ali small loans, such as Suning, Jingdong and so on, began to set foot in the Internet microfinance field.
Finance-Type Internet finance is a financial or non-financial institution that provides financial products and services to investors through the Internet, covering the sale and trading of funds, insurance, Treasury bonds, foreign exchange, futures, precious metals, banking and financial products. Ant Gold Clothing's balance treasure is the pioneer in this field, the main business is the balance value-added services and demand fund management services. Balance treasure is China's largest monetary fund, it is flexible operation, low threshold, expand the channels of public finance. Balance treasure in a short time to gather a large number of idle funds, produced a strong radiation effect, a number of banks, brokers have launched their own products, such as Ping ' an bank launched "Peace Surplus", Minsheng Bank launched "Ruyi Treasure", Yiyang refers to the introduction of "cash housekeeper" and so on. Domestic major electricity companies, the website has also launched its own name of the Internet financial management platform, Baidu launched Baidu Financial management, Beijing east to launch the Beijing Financial management, Suning launched the Suning financial and so on. In addition, the financial system as the main business of the Internet a large number of emerging, such as Lu Jin, a few meters network, copper Street and so on the Internet integrated financial transactions platform, these platforms effectively let more assets and funds to achieve efficient docking, so that people can have more ways to manage the money in hand.
The Service platform-type Internet financial model mainly provides the individual with the financial product search and the parity service, helps the consumer to obtain the low rate loan, the financial management, the insurance and so on convenient service. Internet finance is at an unprecedented pace in the development of a variety of loans, financial products genuine, so that consumers do not have to do. How to search from many products to their real needs of the financial products, is the service platform-type Internet finance to our effective help. The 360 and the net is the leader of the Internet financial model, the main purpose of which is to help consumers access to lower rates of loans, financial management, insurance and other services.
The development of Internet finance accords with the trend of the Times and provides a broad space for the development of financial institutions and enterprises. The internet financial industry is in the rapid development stage, will not stop in the above four models, will be along with the human financial services demand diversification of development and constantly innovate new business model.